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Sea-based nukes: A marginal effect on stability

Thomas Mahnken

There are several sources of instability in the Asia Pacific region today. Some are political, such as China’s pursuit of territorial claims at sea and on land at the expense of its neighbours. Others are military, such as those elements […]

Japanese hard power: Rising to the challenge

Toshi Yoshihara

Key points in this Outlook: Japan’s ambition to play a larger role on the world stage and address the security problems posed by a rising China have led Tokyo to undertake institutional, policy, and defense reforms. Japan’s military reforms are […]

NATO-based nuclear weapons are an advantage in a dangerous world

Brent Scowcroft, Stephen J. Hadley and Franklin Miller

Brent Scowcroft was national security advisor to Presidents Gerald Ford and George H.W. Bush. Stephen J. Hadley was national security adviser to President George W. Bush. Franklin Miller was responsible for U.S. nuclear policy in the Defense Department for Presidents […]

Pakistan’s Battlefield Nuclear Weapons and the Limits of the NATO Analogy

Jaganath Sankaran

NATO’s perceived military inferiority against Warsaw Pact forces is regularly called upon to justify Pakistan’s pursuit of battlefield nuclear weapons. Yet, as Jaganath Sankaran reveals, there’s plenty of historical evidence to suggest that Islamabad should not rely on such weapons […]


Council on Foreign Relations Backgrounder: Ballistic Missile Defense

Jonathan Masters

Introduction U.S. ballistic missile defense systems are designed to protect the U.S. homeland, deployed military forces, and allies from limited attacks. The Pentagon originally sought development of ballistic missile defense (BMD) technology to counter the Soviet nuclear threat during the […]

Space-based Missile Defense: Advancing Creativity, Protecting Lives

Michaela Dodge

“To boldly go where no man has gone before.” So ended “The Captain’s Oath” that opened most episodes of “Star Trek.” For years, Americans happily suspended disbelief to watch the crew of the starship Enterprise as they roamed the universe […]